Articulated Systems¶
ANYmal robots (B and C versions) simulated in RaiSim.
Introduction¶
An articulated system comprises multiple bodies interconnected via joints. There exist two primary configurations of an articulated system: Kinematic trees and closedloop systems. Kinematic trees are characterized by their absence of loops, ensuring that each body has only one parent joint. Consequently, the number of joints in a kinematic tree equals the number of bodies, with the provision of a floating joint on the root body for floating systems.
Closedloop system has one or more loops. A loop means that there are multiple routes from the link to the ROOT. Raisim’s algorithmic backbone, Articulated Body Algorithm, cannot solve the dynamics of a closed system. However, we can simulate a closedloop system using Raisim’s contact solver. This article will mainly cover kinematic trees. A simulation of a closedloop system is mentioned in Closedloop system at the bottom of this page.
In kinematic trees, since each body has only one joint, the index of a body always matches that of its parent joint. Here, a “body” denotes a rigid body composed of one or more “links”, each of which is rigidly connected to others within the same body via fixed joints.
Creating an instance¶
Just like any other object, an articulated system is created by the world instance using addArticulatedSystem
method.
There are four ways to specify an articulated system.
by providing the path to the URDF file (the most recommended way)
by providing the path to the URDF template file (example)
by providing
std::string
of the URDF text (can be useful when working with Xacro)by providing a
raisim::Child
instance. It is an advanced method and not recommended for beginners.
Note that option 1 and 3 use the same method. You can provide either the path string or the contents string and the class will identify which one is provided.
To use option 4, you have to provide all details of the robot in C++ code.
Child is a tree node which contains fixedBodies
and child
.
It also contains joint
, body
, and name
.
All properties should be filled.
Make sure that all inertial properties are defined so that the resulting system is physically feasible.
State Representation¶
The state of an articulated system can be represented by a generalized state \(\boldsymbol{S}\), which is composed of a generalized coordinate \(\boldsymbol{q}\) and a generalized velocity \(\boldsymbol{u}\). Since we are not constraining their parameterization, in general,
A generalized coordinate fully represents the configuration of the articulated system and a generalized velocity fully represents the velocity state of the articulated system. The are independently defined in general.
Every joint has a corresponding generalized coordinate and generalized velocity.
A concatenation of all joint generalized coordinates and velocities are the generalized coordinates and velocities of the articulated system, respectively.
The order of this concatenation is called joint order.
The joint order can be accessed through getMovableJointNames()
.
Note the keyword “movable”.
The fixed joints contribute to neither the generalized coordinate nor the generalized velocity.
Only movable joints do.
The joint order starts with the root body which is the first body of the articulated system.
For floatingbase systems, the root body is the floating base.
For fixedbase systems, the root body is the one rigidly attached to the world.
Even though the fixed base cannot move physically, users can move them using setBaseOrientation
and setBasePosition
.
So getMovableJointNames()
method will return the fixed base name and the fixed base joint is a part of the joint order.
To set the state of the system, the following methods can be used
setGeneralizedCoordinate
setGeneralizedVelocity
setState
To obtain the state of the system, the following methods can be used
getGeneralizedCoordinate
getGeneralizedVelocity
getState
The dimensions of each vector can be obtained respectively by
getGeneralizedCoordinateDim
getDOF
orgetGeneralizedVelocityDim
.
These two methods are identical
Joints¶
Here are the available joints in RaiSim.
Fixed 
Floating 
Revolute 
Prismatic 
Spherical 


\(\boldsymbol{u}\) 
0 
6 
1 
1 
3 
\(\boldsymbol{q}\) 
0 
7 
1 
1 
4 
Velocity 
\(m/s\), \(rad/s\) 
\(rad/s\) 
\(m/s\) 
\(rad/s\) 

Position 
\(m\), \(rad\) 
\(rad\) 
\(m\) 
\(rad\) 

Force 
\(N\), \(Nm\) 
\(Nm\) 
\(N\) 
\(Nm\) 
The generalized coordinates/velocities of a joint are expressed in the joint frame and with respect to the parent body. Joint frame is the frame attached to every joint and fixed to the parent body. Parent body is the one closer to the root body among the two bodies connected via the joint. Note that the angular velocity of a floating base is also expressed in the parent frame (which is the world frame). Other libraries (e.g., RBLD) might have a different convention and a special care has to be taken in conversions.
URDF convention¶
RaiSim uses a modified URDF protocol to define an articulated system. URDF files following the original convention can be read in RaiSim. However, since RaiSim offers more functionalities, a RaiSim URDF might not be read by other libraries following the original URDF convention.
The modifications are as follows:
Capsule geom is available for both collision objects and visual objects (with the keyword “capsule”). The geom is defined by “height” and “radius” keyword. The height represents the distance between the two center points of the spheres.
A <joint>/<dynamics> tag can have three more attributes: rotor_inertia, spring_mount and stiffness.
Here is an example joint with the raisim tags
<joint name="link1Tolink2" type="spherical">
<parent link="link1"/>
<child link="link2"/>
<origin xyz="0 0 0.24"/>
<axis xyz="0 1 0"/>
<dynamics rotor_inertia="0.0001" spring_mount="0.70710678118 0 0.70710678118 0" stiffness="500.0" damping="3."/>
</joint>
Rotor_inertia in Raisim approximately simulates the rotor inertia of the motor (but missing the resulting gyroscopic effect, which is often neglegible).
It is added to the diagonal elements of the mass matrix.
It is common way to include the inertial effect of the rotor.
You can also override it in C++ using setRotorInertia()
.
Since RaiSim does not know the gear ratio, you have to multiply the rotor inertia by the square of the gear ratio yourself.
In other words, the value is the reflected rotor inertia observed at the joint.
And two preprocessor features (that are also available in the raisim world configuration file) are available for the URDF template.
You can specify a variable in a form of “@@Robot_Height”. The value of this variable can be specified at the run timeusing ‘’std::unordered_map’’ and the corresponding factory method in ‘’raisim::World::.
You can specify an equation instead of a variable. For example, {@@Robot_Height*@@Robot_Width*2}.
The preprocessor example can be found in examples/src/server/trackedRobotAndTemplatedURDF.cpp
and the corresponding URDF template in rsc/templatedTrackedRobot/trackedTemplate.urdf
.
In RaiSim, each body of an articulated system has a set of collision bodies and visual objects. Collision bodies contain a collision object of one of the following shapes: mesh, sphere, box, cylinder, capsule. Visual objects just store specifications for visualization and the actual visualzation happens in a visualizer (e.g., raisimOgre) For details, check the URDF protocol.
Templated URDF¶
You can template an URDF and create different robots by providing different parameters in C++. An example can be found in here.
In the URDF template, variables should be marked with @@
.
Just like in a world configuration template, you can write math expressions inside {}
.
Only basic functions (i.e., sin, cos, log, exp) are available.
Template parameters should be provided at runtime in raisim::World::addArticulatedSystem
.
One of the overloading methods take const std::unordered_map<std::string, std::string>& params
as input.
The first one in the pair is the name and the second one is the parameter in a form of string.
Kinematics¶
Frames¶
A position and velocity of a specific point on a body of an articulated system can be obtained by attaching a frame. Frames are rigidly attached to a body of the system and has a constant position and orientation (w.r.t. parent frame). It is the most recommended way to get kinematics information of a point of an articulated system in RaiSim.
All joints have a frame attached and their names are the same as the joint name. To create a custom frame, a fixed frame can be defined at the point of the interest. A dummy link with zero inertia and zero mass must be added on one side of the fixed joint to complete the kinematic tree.
A frame can be locally stored as an index in the user code. For e.g.,
#include “raisim/World.hpp”
int main() {
raisim::World world;
auto anymal = world.addArticulatedSystem(PATH_TO_URDF);
auto footFrameIndex = anymal>getFrameIdxByName("foot_joint"); // the URDF has a joint named "foot_joint"
raisim::Vec<3> footPosition, footVelocity, footAngularVelocity;
raisim::Mat<3,3> footOrientation;
anymal>getFramePosition(footFrameIndex, footPosition);
anymal>getFrameOrientation(footFrameIndex, footOrientation);
anymal>getFrameVelocity(footFrameIndex, footVelocity);
anymal>getFrameAngularVelocity(footFrameIndex, footAngularVelocity);
}
You can also store a Frame reference.
For e.g., you can replace getFrameIdxByName
by getFrameByName
in the above example.
In this way, you can access the internal variables and even modify them.
Modifying the frames do not affect the joints.
Frames are instantiated during initialization of the articulated system instance and affect neither kinematics nor dynamics of the system even if you change them.
Joint limits¶
Joint limits can be defined in an URDF file per joint as following
<limit effort="80" lower="6.28" upper="6.28" velocity="15"/>
The lower
and upper
are joint position limits and the velocity
is the joint velocity limit.
The joint limits are implemented as if there is a hard stop at the limits.
This means that there is a hard collision (with 0 restitution of coefficient) when the joint hits a limit.visualization
You modify the position joint limits in C++ using raisim::ArticulatedSystem::setJointLimits()
.
Currently, you cannot modify the velocity joint limits in code.
During simulation, you can get information on joint limit violations using raisim::ArticulatedSystem::getJointLimitViolations
.
Even though joint limits are collisions (and thus handled by a contact solver), they are not listed in raisim::Object::getContacts()
.
Jacobians¶
Jacobians of a point in RaiSim satisfy the following equation:
where \(\boldsymbol{v}\) represents the linear velocity of the associated point. If a rotational Jacobian is used, the righthand side changes to a rotational velocity expressed in the world frame.
To get the Jacobians associated with the linear velocity, the following methods are used
getSparseJacobian
getDenseJacobian
– this method only fills nonzero values. The matrix should be initialized to a zero matrix of an appropriate size.
To get the rotational Jacobians, the following methods are used
getSparseRotationalJacobian
getDenseRotationalJacobian
– this method only fills nonzero values. The matrix should be initialized to a zero matrix of an appropriate size.
The main Jacobian class in RaiSim is raisim::SparseJacobian
.
RaiSim uses only sparse Jacobians as it is more memoryfriendly.
Note that only the joints between the child body and the root body affect the motion of the point.
The class raisim::SparseJacobian
has a member idx
which stores the indicies of columns whose values are nonzero.
The member v
stores the Jacobian except the zero columns.
In other words, ith column of v
corresponds to idx[i]
generalized velocity dimension.
Dynamics¶
All force and torque acting on the system can be represented as a single vector in the generalized velocity space. This representation is called generalized force \(\boldsymbol{\tau}\). Just like in a Cartesian coordiate (i.e., x, y, z axes), the power exerted by an articulated system is computed as a dot product of generalized force and generalized velocity (i.e., \(\boldsymbol{u}\cdot\boldsymbol{\tau}\)).
We can also combine the mass and inertia of the whole articulated system and represent them in a single matrix. This matrix is called mass matrix or inertia matrix and denoted by \(\boldsymbol{M}\). A mass matrix represents how much the articulated system resists change in generalized velocities. Naively speaking, a large mass matrix means that the articulated system experiences a low velocity change for a given generalized force.
The total kinetic energy of the system is computed as \(\frac{1}{2}\boldsymbol{u}^T\boldsymbol{M}\boldsymbol{u}\).
This quantity can be obtained by getKineticEnergy()
.
The total potential energy due to the gravity is a sum of \(mgh\) for all bodies.
This quantity can be obtained by getPotentialEnergy()
.
Note that the gravity has to be specified since only the world has the gravity vector.
The equation of motion of an articulated system is shown below:
Here \(\boldsymbol{h}\) is called a nonlinear term. There are three sources of force that contributes to the nonlinear term: gravity, coriolis, and centrifugal force. It is rarely useful to compute the gravity contribution to the nonlinear term alone. However, if it is needed, the easiest way is to make the same robot in another world with zero velocity. If the generalized velocity is zero, the coriolis and centrifugal contributions are zero.
The following methods are used to obtain dynamic quantities
getMassMatrix()
getNonlinearities()
getInverseMassMatrix()
Inverse Dynamics¶
Raisim can compute Inverse Dynamics using the recursive newton euler algorithm. It is the only option for computing the force and torque acting at joints. Joint force/torque are sum of the constraint joint force/torque and actuation force/torque. For example, a revolute joint constrains motions in 5 degrees of freedom, which means that there are 5dimensional constraint forces/torque and 1dimensional joint actuation torque acting at a revolute joint.
In minimal coordinate simulation (such as Raisim), these constraint forces/torques are not computed in the simulation loop. These forces/torques can be computed after a simulation loop using the inverse dynamics pipeline.
To enable inverse dynamics, you should call raisim::ArticulatedSystem::setComputeInverseDynamics(true)
.
This flag is set automatically if the robot has an IMU sensor.
Note that the inverse dynamics pipeline will slow down the simulation by about 10%.
After a simulation loop, you can call raisim::ArticulatedSystem::getForceAtJointInWorldFrame()
and raisim::ArticulatedSystem::getTorqueAtJointInWorldFrame()
to get forces and torque acting at the specified joint.
Assuming that there are no joint position/velocity limit forces acting at the joint, you can compute the joint actuation as a dot product of the joint axis and the joint torque.
An example can be found in examples/server/inverseDynamics.cpp
.
PD Controller¶
When naively implemented, a PD controller can often make a robot unstable. However, this is often not so bad for robotics since this instability is also present in the real system (discretetime control system).
For other applications like animation and graphics, it is often desirable to have a stable PD controller when a user wants to keep the time step small. Therefore, this PD controller exploits a more stable integration scheme and can have much smaller time step than a naive implementation.
This PD controller does not respect the actuation limits of the robot. It uses an implicit integration scheme and we do not even compute the actual torque that is applied to the joints.
To use this PD controller, you have to set the desirable control gains first
Eigen::VectorXd pGain(robot>getDOF()), dGain(robot>getDOF());
pGain<< ...; // set your proportional gain values here
dGain<< ...; // set your differential gain values here
robot>setPdGains(pGain, dGain);
Note that the dimension of the pGain vector is the same as that of the generalized velocity NOT that of the coordinate.
Finally, the target position and the velocity can set as below
Eigen::VectorXd pTarget(robot>getGeneralizedCoordinateDim()), vTarget(robot>getDOF());
pTarget<< ...; // set your position target
vTarget<< ...; // set your velocity target
robot>setPdTarget(pTarget, vTarget);
Here, the dimension of the pTarget vector is the same as that of the generalized coordinate NOT that of the velocity. This is confusing and might seem inconsistent. However, this is a valid convention. The only reason that the two dimensions differ is quaternions. The quaternion target is represented by a quaternion whereas the virtual spring stiffness between the two orientations can be represented by a 3D vector, which is composed of motions in each angular velocity components.
A feedforward force term can be added by setGeneralizedForce()
if desired.
This term is set to zero by default.
Note that this value is stored in the class instance and does not change unless the user specifies it so.
If this feedforward force should be applied for a single time step, it should be set to zero in the subsequent control loop (after integrate()
call of the world).
The theory of the implemented PD controller can be found in chapter 1.2 of this article. This document is only for advanced users and it is not necessary to use RaiSim.
Integration Steps¶
Integration of an articulated systems is performed in two stages: integrate1
and integrate2
The following steps are performed in integrate1
If the time step is changed, update the damping of the mass matrix (which reflects effective inertial increase due to springs, dampers and PD gains)
Update positions of the collision bodies
Detect collisions (called by the world instance)
The world assigns contacts on each object and computes the contact normal
Compute the mass matrix, nonlinear term and inverse inertia matrix
Compute (Sparse) Jacobians of contacts
After this step, all kinematic/dynamic proerpties are computed at this stage.
Users can access them if they are necessary for the controller.
Next, integrate2
computes the rest of the simulation.
Compute contact Properties
Compute PD controller (if used), add it to the feedforward force and bound it by the limits
Compute generalized forces due to springs and external forces/torques
Contact solver (called by the world instance)
Integrate the velocity
Integrate the position (in a semiimplicit way)
Get and Modify Robot Description in code¶
RaiSim allows users modify most of the robot parameters freely in code. This allows users to create randomized robot model, which might be useful for AI applications (i.e., dynamic randomization). Note that a random model might be kinematically and dynamically unrealistic. For example, joints can be locked by collision bodies. In such cases, simulation cannot be performed reliably and it is advised to carefully check randomly generated robot models.
Here is a list of modifiable kinematic/dynamic parameters.
Joint Position (relative to the parent joint) Expressed in the Parent Frame
getJointPos_P
method returns (a nonconst reference to) a std::vector
of position vectors from the parent joint to the child joint expressed in the respective parent joint frames.
This should be changed with care since it can result in unrealistic collision geometry.
This method does not change the position of the endeffector with respect to its parent as the position of the last link is defined by the collision body position, not by the joint position.
The elements are ordered by the joint indicies.
Joint Axis in the Parent Frame
getJointAxis_P
method returns (a nonconst reference to) a std::vector
of joint axes expressed in the respective parent joint frame.
This method should also be changed with care.
The elements are ordered by the joint indicies.
Mass of the Links
getMass
method returns (a nonconst reference to) a std::vector
of link masses.
IMPORTANT! You must call :code:`updateMassInfo` after changing mass values.
The elements are ordered by the body indicies (which is the same as the joint indicies in RaiSim).
Center of Mass Position
getBodyCOM_B
method returns (a nonconst reference to) a std::vector
of the COM of the bodies.
The elements are ordered by the body indices.
Link Inertia
getInertia
method returns (a nonconst reference to) a std::vector
of link inertia.
The elements are ordered by the body indicies.
Collision Bodies
getCollisionBodies
method returns (a nonconst reference to) a std::vector
of the collision bodies.
This vector contains all collision bodies associated with the articulated system.
getCollisionBody
method returns a specific collision body instead.
All collision bodies are named “LINK_NAME” + “/INDEX”.
For example, the 2nd collision body of a link named “FOOT” is named “FOOT/1” (1 because the index starts from 0).
The collision bodies is a class that contains position/orientation offset from the parent joint frame, name, parent body index, and ODE collision pointer (dGeomID
, retrieved using getCollisionObject
).
The collision geom can be modified using ODE methods (ODE manual).
Users can also modify the material of the collision body.
This material affects the contact dynamics.
Apply External Forces/torques¶
The following two methods are used to apply external force and torque respectively
setExternalForce
setExternalTorque
You will find above methods in the API section on this page.
Collision¶
Apart from the collision mask and collision group set in the world, users can also disable a collision between a certain pair of the links with ignoreCollisionBetween
.
Types of Indices¶
ArticulatedSystem class contains multiple types of indices. To query a specific quantity, you have to provide an index of the right type. Here are the types of indices in Articulated Systems
Body/Joint Index: All fixed bodies are combined to a single movable body. Each movable body has a unique body index. Because there is a movable joint associated with a movable body, there is a 1to1 mapping between the joints and the bodies and they share the same index. For a fixedbase system, the first body rigidly fixed to the world is body0. For a floatingbase system, the floating base is body0.
Generalized Velocity (DOF) Index: All joints are mapped to a specific set of generalized velocity indicies.
Generalized Coordinate Index:
Frame Index:
Conversions Between Indices¶
A body index to a generalized velocity index:
ArticulatedSystem::getMappingFromBodyIndexToGeneralizedVelocityIndex()
A body index to a generalized coordinate index:
ArticulatedSystem::getMappingFromBodyIndexToGeneralizedCoordinateIndex()
Closedloop system¶
Before modeling a closedloop system, it is necessary to model a corresponding spanning tree. A spanning tree is a kinematic tree that can be constructed by removing a minimum number of joints from a closedloop system. Imagine a chain necklace. By disconnecting one of the joints, a kinematic tree will form. Only one joint should be removed because, otherwise, two separate kinematic trees will form. Note that there are multiple ways to form a kinematic tree because any of the joints can be removed.
To model a closedloop system in Raisim, a corresponding spanning tree should be modeled in a URDF format first. To convert the spanning tree into a closedloop system, a pin constraint can be added. A pin constraint is an equality constraint that enforces two points on different bodies to be at the same position. A pin constraint is defined by the nominal configuration of the robot, the names of the two bodies to be pinned, and the position on the first body to be pinned. Note that the pinned position on the second body is defined by the nominal configuration and the position on the first body.
An example of a closed loop system can be found here. An example of a closed loop system URDF can be found here.
API¶

class
ArticulatedSystem
: public raisim::Object¶ Public Functions

inline const raisim::VecDyn &
getGeneralizedCoordinate
() const¶  Returns
generalized coordinate of the system

inline const raisim::VecDyn &
getGeneralizedVelocity
() const¶  Returns
generalized velocity of the system

inline const raisim::VecDyn &
getGeneralizedAcceleration
() const¶  Returns
generalized acceleration of the system. The generalized acceleration is computed in the integration step. So this function does not work properly if you have not integrated the world.

void
getBaseOrientation
(raisim::Vec<4> &quaternion) const¶  Parameters
quaternion – [out] orientation of base

inline void
getBaseOrientation
(raisim::Mat<3, 3> &rotataionMatrix) const¶  Parameters
rotataionMatrix – [out] orientation of base

inline const raisim::Mat<3, 3> &
getBaseOrientation
() const¶  Returns
orientation of base

inline void
getBasePosition
(raisim::Vec<3> &position) const¶  Parameters
position – [out] position of base

inline raisim::Vec<3>
getBasePosition
() const¶  Returns
position of base

void
updateKinematics
()¶ unnecessary to call this function if you are simulating your system. integrate1 calls this function Call this function if you want to get kinematic properties but you don’t want to integrate.

inline void
setGeneralizedCoordinate
(const Eigen::VectorXd &jointState)¶ set gc of each joint in order
 Parameters
jointState – [in] generalized coordinate

inline void
setGeneralizedCoordinate
(const raisim::VecDyn &jointState)¶ set gc of each joint in order
 Parameters
jointState – [in] generalized coordinate

inline void
setGeneralizedVelocity
(const Eigen::VectorXd &jointVel)¶ set the generalized velocity
 Parameters
jointVel – [in] the generalized velocity

inline void
setGeneralizedVelocity
(const raisim::VecDyn &jointVel)¶ set the generalized velocity
 Parameters
jointVel – [in] the generalized velocity

void
setGeneralizedCoordinate
(std::initializer_list<double> jointState)¶ set the generalized coordinsate of each joint in order.
 Parameters
jointState – [in] the generalized coordinate

void
setGeneralizedVelocity
(std::initializer_list<double> jointVel)¶ set the generalized velocity of each joint in order
 Parameters
jointVel – [in] the generalized velocity

void
setGeneralizedForce
(std::initializer_list<double> tau)¶ This is feedforward generalized force. In the PD control mode, this differs from the actual generalizedForce the dimension should be the same as dof.
 Parameters
tau – [in] the generalized force. If the builtin PD controller is active, this force is added to the generalized force from the PD controller

inline void
setGeneralizedForce
(const raisim::VecDyn &tau)¶ This is feedforward generalized force. In the PD control mode, this differs from the actual generalizedForce the dimension should be the same as dof.
 Parameters
tau – [in] the generalized force. If the builtin PD controller is active, this force is added to the generalized force from the PD controller

inline void
setGeneralizedForce
(const Eigen::VectorXd &tau)¶ This is feedforward generalized force. In the PD control mode, this differs from the actual generalizedForce the dimension should be the same as dof.
 Parameters
tau – [in] the generalized force. If the builtin PD controller is active, this force is added to the generalized force from the PD controller

inline void
getState
(Eigen::VectorXd &genco, Eigen::VectorXd &genvel) const¶ get both the generalized coordinate and the generalized velocity
 Parameters
genco – [out] the generalized coordinate
genvel – [out] the generalized velocity

inline void
getState
(VecDyn &genco, VecDyn &genvel) const¶ get both the generalized coordinate and the generalized velocity
 Parameters
genco – [out] the generalized coordinate
genvel – [out] the generalized velocity

inline void
setState
(const Eigen::VectorXd &genco, const Eigen::VectorXd &genvel)¶ set both the generalized coordinate and the generalized velocity. This updates the kinematics and removes previously computed contact points
 Parameters
genco – [in] the generalized coordinate
genvel – [in] the generalized velocity

inline VecDyn
getGeneralizedForce
() const¶ Generalized userset gen force (using setGeneralizedForce()). This method a small error when the builtin PD controller is used. The PD controller is implicit (using a continuous, linear model) so we cannot get the true gen force. But if you set the time step small enough, the difference is negligible.
 Returns
the generalized force

inline const VecDyn &
getFeedForwardGeneralizedForce
() const¶ get the feedfoward generalized force (which is set by the user)
 Returns
the feedforward generalized force

inline const MatDyn &
getMassMatrix
()¶ get the mass matrix
 Returns
the mass matrix. Check Object/ArticulatedSystem section in the manual

inline const VecDyn &
getNonlinearities
(const Vec<3> &gravity)¶ get the coriolis and the gravitational term
 Parameters
gravity – [in] gravitational acceleration. You should get this value from the world.getGravity();
 Returns
the coriolis and the gravitational term. Check Object/ArticulatedSystem section in the manual

inline const MatDyn &
getInverseMassMatrix
()¶ get the inverse mass matrix. Note that this is actually damped inverse. It contains the effect of damping and the spring effects due to the implicit integration. YOU MUST CALL getMassMatrix FIRST BEFORE CALLING THIS METHOD.
 Returns
the inverse mass matrix. Check Object/ArticulatedSystem section in the manual

inline const std::vector<raisim::Vec<3>> &
getCompositeCOM
() const¶ get the center of mass of a composite body containing body i and all its children. if you want the COM of the whole robot, just take the first element This only works if you have called getMassMatrix() with the current state
 Returns
the center of mass of the composite body

inline Vec<3>
getCOM
() const¶ get the center of mass of the whole system
 Returns
the center of mass of the system

inline const std::vector<raisim::Mat<3, 3>> &
getCompositeInertia
() const¶ get the current composite inertia of a composite body containing body i and all its children
 Returns
the inertia of the composite system

inline const std::vector<double> &
getCompositeMass
() const¶ get the current composite mass of a composite body containing body i and all its children
 Returns
get the composite mass

inline Vec<3>
getLinearMomentum
() const¶ linear momentum of the whole system
 Returns
momentum

inline const VecDyn &
getGeneralizedMomentum
() const¶ returns the generalized momentum which is M * u It is already computed in “integrate1()” so you don’t have to compute again.
 Returns
the generalized momentum

double
getEnergy
(const Vec<3> &gravity)¶  Parameters
gravity – [in] gravitational acceleration
 Returns
the sum of potential/kinetic energy given the gravitational acceleration

double
getKineticEnergy
()¶  Returns
the kinetic energy.

double
getPotentialEnergy
(const Vec<3> &gravity) const¶  Parameters
gravity – [in] gravitational acceleration
 Returns
the potential energy (relative to zero height) given the gravity vector

void
getAngularMomentum
(const Vec<3> &referencePoint, Vec<3> &angularMomentum) const¶  Parameters
referencePoint – [in] the reference point about which the angular momentum is computed
angularMomentum – [in] angular momentum about the reference point

void
printOutBodyNamesInOrder
() const¶ bodies here means moving bodies. Fixed bodies are optimized out

void
printOutMovableJointNamesInOrder
() const¶ print out movable joint names in order

void
printOutFrameNamesInOrder
() const¶ frames are attached to every joint coordinate

inline const std::vector<std::string> &
getMovableJointNames
() const¶ getMovableJointNames. Note! the order doesn’t correspond to dof since there are joints with multiple dof’s
 Returns
movable joint names in the joint order.

inline size_t
getGeneralizedVelocityIndex
(const std::string &name) const¶ get generalized velocity index of a joint.
 Returns
the joint index.

virtual void
getPosition
(size_t bodyIdx, const Vec<3> &point_B, Vec<3> &point_W) const final¶  Parameters
bodyIdx – [in] The body which contains the point, can be retrieved by getBodyIdx()
point_B – [in] The position of the point in the body frame
point_W – [out] The position of the point in the world frame
 Returns
position in the world frame of a point defined in a joint frame

inline CoordinateFrame &
getFrameByName
(const std::string &nm)¶ Refer to Object/ArticulatedSystem/Kinematics/Frame in the manual for details
 Parameters
nm – [in] name of the frame
 Returns
the coordinate frame of the given name

inline CoordinateFrame &
getFrameByLinkName
(const std::string &name)¶ Refer to Object/ArticulatedSystem/Kinematics/Frame in the manual for details
 Parameters
name – [in] name of the urdf link that is a child of the joint
 Returns
the coordinate frame of the given link name

inline size_t
getFrameIdxByLinkName
(const std::string &name) const¶ Refer to Object/ArticulatedSystem/Kinematics/Frame in the manual for details
 Parameters
name – [in] name of the urdf link that is a child of the joint
 Returns
the coordinate frame index of the given link name

inline CoordinateFrame &
getFrameByIdx
(size_t idx)¶ Refer to Object/ArticulatedSystem/Kinematics/Frame in the manual for details
 Parameters
idx – [in] index of the frame
 Returns
the coordinate frame of the given index

size_t
getFrameIdxByName
(const std::string &nm) const¶ Refer to Object/ArticulatedSystem/Kinematics/Frame in the manual for details The frame can be retrieved as as>getFrames[index]. This way is more efficient than above methods that use the frame name
 Parameters
nm – [in] name of the frame
 Returns
the index of the coordinate frame of the given index. Returns size_t(1) if it doesn’t exist

inline std::vector<CoordinateFrame> &
getFrames
()¶ Refer to Object/ArticulatedSystem/Kinematics/Frame in the manual for details The frame can be retrieved as as>getFrames[index]. This way is more efficient than above methods that use the frame name
 Returns
a vector of the coordinate frames

void
getFramePosition
(size_t frameId, Vec<3> &point_W) const¶  Parameters
frameId – [in] the frame id which can be obtained by getFrameIdxByName()
point_W – [out] the position of the frame expressed in the world frame

void
getPositionInFrame
(size_t frameId, const Vec<3> &localPos, Vec<3> &point_W) const¶  Parameters
frameId – [in] the frame id which can be obtained by getFrameIdxByName()
localPos – [in] local position in the specified frame
point_W – [out] the position expressed in the world frame

void
getFrameOrientation
(size_t frameId, Mat<3, 3> &orientation_W) const¶  Parameters
frameId – [in] the frame id which can be obtained by getFrameIdxByName()
orientation_W – [out] the position of the frame relative to the world frame

void
getFrameVelocity
(size_t frameId, Vec<3> &vel_W) const¶  Parameters
frameId – [in] the frame id which can be obtained by getFrameIdxByName()
vel_W – [out] the linear velocity of the frame expressed in the world frame

void
getFrameAngularVelocity
(size_t frameId, Vec<3> &angVel_W) const¶  Parameters
frameId – [in] the frame id which can be obtained by getFrameIdxByName()
angVel_W – [out] the angular velocity of the frame expressed in the world frame

inline void
getFramePosition
(const std::string &frameName, Vec<3> &point_W) const¶  Parameters
frameName – [in] the frame name (defined in the urdf)
point_W – [out] the position of the frame expressed in the world frame

inline void
getFrameOrientation
(const std::string &frameName, Mat<3, 3> &orientation_W) const¶  Parameters
frameName – [in] the frame name (defined in the urdf)
orientation_W – [out] the orientation of the frame relative to the world frame

inline void
getFrameVelocity
(const std::string &frameName, Vec<3> &vel_W) const¶  Parameters
frameName – [in] the frame name (defined in the urdf)
vel_W – [out] the linear velocity of the frame expressed in the world frame

inline void
getFrameAngularVelocity
(const std::string &frameName, Vec<3> &angVel_W) const¶  Parameters
frameName – [in] the frame name (defined in the urdf)
angVel_W – [out] the angular velocity of the frame relative to the world frame

void
getFramePosition
(const CoordinateFrame &frame, Vec<3> &point_W) const¶  Parameters
frame – [in] custom frame defined by the user
point_W – [out] the position of the frame relative to the world frame

void
getFrameOrientation
(const CoordinateFrame &frame, Mat<3, 3> &orientation_W) const¶  Parameters
frame – [in] custom frame defined by the user
orientation_W – [out] the orientation of the frame relative to the world frame

void
getFrameVelocity
(const CoordinateFrame &frame, Vec<3> &vel_W) const¶  Parameters
frame – [in] custom frame defined by the user
vel_W – [out] the linear velocity of the frame expressed to the world frame

void
getFrameAngularVelocity
(const CoordinateFrame &frame, Vec<3> &angVel_W) const¶  Parameters
frame – [in] custom frame defined by the user
angVel_W – [out] the angular velocity of the frame expressed to the world frame

inline void
getFrameAcceleration
(const std::string &frameName, Vec<3> &acc_W) const¶ YOU NEED TO ENABLE INVERSEDYNAMICS COMPUTATION TO USE THIS METHOD This is time derivative of (body velocity expressed in the world frame). If you premultiply this by the transpose of the rotation matrix of the frame, it is the same as what your accelerometer sensor will measure if you place it at the frame (but an IMU has gravity bias so they will be off by the gravitational acceleration). This is not the same as {(time derivative of body velocity expressed in the body frame) expressed in the world frame}
 Parameters
frameName – [in] name of the frame
acc_W – [out] the linear acceleration of the frame expressed in the world frame

inline void
getFrameAcceleration
(const CoordinateFrame &frame, Vec<3> &acc_W) const¶ YOU NEED TO ENABLE INVERSEDYNAMICS COMPUTATION TO USE THIS METHOD This is time derivative of (body velocity expressed in the world frame). If you premultiply this by the transpose of the rotation matrix of the frame, it is the same as what your accelerometer sensor will measure if you place it at the frame. (but an IMU has gravity bias so they will be off by the gravitational acceleration). This is not the same as {(time derivative of body velocity expressed in the body frame) expressed in the world frame}
 Parameters
frame – [in] custom frame defined by the user
acc_W – [out] the linear acceleration of the frame expressed in the world frame

inline virtual void
getPosition
(size_t bodyIdx, Vec<3> &pos_w) const final¶  Parameters
bodyIdx – [in] the body index. Note that body index and the joint index are the same because every body has one parent joint. It can be retrieved by getBodyIdx()
pos_w – [out] the position of the joint (after its own joint transformation)

void
getPositionInBodyCoordinate
(size_t bodyIdx, const Vec<3> &pos_W, Vec<3> &pos_B)¶  Parameters
bodyIdx – [in] the body index. Note that body index and the joint index are the same because every body has one parent joint. It can be retrieved by getBodyIdx()
pos_W – [in] the position in the world coordinate. This position does not have to be physically on the body.
pos_B – [out] the position in the body frame

inline virtual void
getOrientation
(size_t bodyIdx, Mat<3, 3> &rot) const final¶  Parameters
bodyIdx – [in] the body index. Note that body index and the joint index are the same because every body has one parent joint. It can be retrieved by getBodyIdx()
rot – [out] the orientation of the joint (after its own joint transformation)

inline virtual void
getVelocity
(size_t bodyIdx, Vec<3> &vel_w) const final¶  Parameters
bodyIdx – [in] the body index. Note that body index and the joint index are the same because every body has one parent joint. It can be retrieved by getBodyIdx()
vel_w – [out] the linear velocity of the joint (after its own joint transformation)

inline void
getAngularVelocity
(size_t bodyIdx, Vec<3> &angVel_w) const¶  Parameters
bodyIdx – [in] the body index. Note that body index and the joint index are the same because every body has one parent joint. It can be retrieved by getBodyIdx()
angVel_w – [out] the angular velocity of the joint (after its own joint transformation)

void
getSparseJacobian
(size_t bodyIdx, const Vec<3> &point_W, SparseJacobian &jaco) const¶  Parameters
bodyIdx – [in] the body index. Note that body index and the joint index are the same because every body has one parent joint. It can be retrieved by getBodyIdx()
point_W – [in] the point expressed in the world frame. If you want to use a point expressed in the body frame, use getDenseFrameJacobian()
jaco – [out] the positional Jacobian. v = J * u. v is the linear velocity expressed in the world frame and u is the generalized velocity

void
getSparseJacobian
(size_t bodyIdx, Frame frame, const Vec<3> &point, SparseJacobian &jaco) const¶  Parameters
bodyIdx – [in] the body index. Note that body index and the joint index are the same because every body has one parent joint. It can be retrieved by getBodyIdx()
frame – [in] the frame in which the position of the point is expressed in
point – [in] the point expressed in the world frame. If you want to use a point expressed in the body frame, use getDenseFrameJacobian()
jaco – [out] the positional Jacobian. v = J * u. v is the linear velocity expressed in the world frame and u is the generalized velocity

void
getSparseRotationalJacobian
(size_t bodyIdx, SparseJacobian &jaco) const¶  Parameters
bodyIdx – [in] the body index. Note that body index and the joint index are the same because every body has one parent joint. It can be retrieved by getBodyIdx()
jaco – [out] the rotational Jacobian. omega = J * u. omgea is the angular velocity expressed in the world frame and u is the generalized velocity

void
getTimeDerivativeOfSparseJacobian
(size_t bodyIdx, Frame frame, const Vec<3> &point, SparseJacobian &jaco) const¶  Parameters
bodyIdx – [in] the body index. Note that body index and the joint index are the same because every body has one parent joint. It can be retrieved by getBodyIdx()
frame – [in] the frame in which the position of the point is expressed
point – [in] the position of the point of interest
jaco – [out] the time derivative of the positional Jacobian. a = dJ * u + J * du. a is the linear acceleration expressed in the world frame, u is the generalized velocity and d denotes the time derivative

void
getTimeDerivativeOfSparseRotationalJacobian
(size_t bodyIdx, SparseJacobian &jaco) const¶  Parameters
bodyIdx – [in] the body index. Note that body index and the joint index are the same because every body has one parent joint. It can be retrieved by getBodyIdx()
jaco – [out] the rotational Jacobian. alpha = dJ * u + J * du. alpha is the angular acceleration expressed in the world frame, u is the generalized velocity and d denotes the time derivative

inline void
getDenseJacobian
(size_t bodyIdx, const Vec<3> &point_W, Eigen::MatrixXd &jaco) const¶ This method only fills out nonzero elements. Make sure that the jaco is setZero() once in the initialization!
 Parameters
bodyIdx – [in] the body index. Note that body index and the joint index are the same because every body has one parent joint
point_W – [in] the point expressed in the world frame. If you want to use a point expressed in the body frame, use getDenseFrameJacobian()
jaco – [out] the dense positional Jacobian

inline void
getDenseRotationalJacobian
(size_t bodyIdx, Eigen::MatrixXd &jaco) const¶ This method only fills out nonzero elements. Make sure that the jaco is setZero() once in the initialization!
 Parameters
bodyIdx – [in] the body index. it can be retrieved by getBodyIdx()
jaco – [out] the dense rotational Jacobian

inline void
getDenseFrameJacobian
(size_t frameIdx, Eigen::MatrixXd &jaco) const¶ This method only fills out nonzero elements. Make sure that the jaco is setZero() once in the initialization!
 Parameters
frameIdx – [in] the frame index. it can be retrieved by getFrameIdxByName()
jaco – [out] the dense positional Jacobian

inline void
getDenseFrameJacobian
(const std::string &frameName, Eigen::MatrixXd &jaco) const¶ This method only fills out nonzero elements. Make sure that the jaco is setZero() once in the initialization!
 Parameters
frameName – [in] the frame name. (defined in the URDF)
jaco – [out] the dense positional Jacobian

inline void
getDenseFrameRotationalJacobian
(size_t frameIdx, Eigen::MatrixXd &jaco) const¶ This method only fills out nonzero elements. Make sure that the jaco is setZero() once in the initialization!
 Parameters
frameIdx – [in] the frame index. it can be retrieved by getFrameIdxByName()
jaco – [out] the dense rotational Jacobian

inline void
getDenseFrameRotationalJacobian
(const std::string &frameName, Eigen::MatrixXd &jaco) const¶ This method only fills out nonzero elements. Make sure that the jaco is setZero() once in the initialization!
 Parameters
frameName – [in] the frame name. (defined in the URDF)
jaco – [out] the dense rotational Jacobian

void
getVelocity
(const SparseJacobian &jaco, Vec<3> &pointVel) const¶  Parameters
jaco – [in] the Jacobian associated with the point of interest
pointVel – [out] the velocity of the point expressed in the world frame

virtual void
getVelocity
(size_t bodyIdx, const Vec<3> &posInBodyFrame, Vec<3> &pointVel) const final¶  Parameters
bodyIdx – [in] the body index. it can be retrieved by getBodyIdx()
posInBodyFrame – [in] the position of the point of interest expressed in the body frame
pointVel – [out] the velocity of the point expressed in the world frame

void
getVelocity
(size_t bodyIdx, Frame frameOfPos, const Vec<3> &pos, Frame frameOfVel, Vec<3> &pointVel) const¶  Parameters
bodyIdx – [in] the body index. it can be retrieved by getBodyIdx()
frameOfPos – [in] the frame in which the provided position is expressed
pos – [in] the position of the point of interest
frameOfVel – [in] the frame in which the computed velocity is expressed
pointVel – [out] the velocity of the point expressed in the world frame

size_t
getBodyIdx
(const std::string &nm) const¶ returns the index of the body
 Parameters
nm – [in] name of the body. The body name is the name of the movable link of the body
 Returns
the index of the body. Returns size_t(1) if the body doesn’t exist.

size_t
getDOF
() const¶  Returns
the degrees of freedom

size_t
getGeneralizedVelocityDim
() const¶  Returns
the dimension of generalized velocity (do the same thing with getDOF)

size_t
getGeneralizedCoordinateDim
() const¶  Returns
the dimension of generalized coordinate

inline void
getBodyPose
(size_t bodyIdx, Mat<3, 3> &orientation, Vec<3> &position) const¶ The body pose is the pose of its parent joint (after its joint transformation)
 Parameters
bodyIdx – [in] the body index. it can be retrieved by getBodyIdx()
orientation – [out] the orientation of the body
position – [out] the position of the body

inline void
getBodyPosition
(size_t bodyIdx, Vec<3> &position) const¶ The body position is the position of its parent joint (after its joint transformation)
 Parameters
bodyIdx – [in] the body index. it can be retrieved by getBodyIdx()
position – [out] the position of the body

inline void
getBodyOrientation
(size_t bodyIdx, Mat<3, 3> &orientation) const¶ The body orientation is the orientation of its parent joint (after its joint transformation)
 Parameters
bodyIdx – [in] the body index. it can be retrieved by getBodyIdx()
orientation – [out] the orientation of the body

inline std::vector<raisim::Vec<3>> &
getJointPos_P
()¶ The following 5 methods can be used to directly modify dynamic/kinematic properties of the robot. They are made for dynamic randomization. Use them with caution since they will change the the model permenantly. After you change the dynamic properties, call “void updateMassInfo()” to update some precomputed dynamic properties
 Returns
a reference to joint position relative to its parent, expressed in the parent frame.

inline std::vector<raisim::Mat<3, 3>> &
getJointOrientation_P
()¶  Returns
a reference to joint orientation relative to its parent.

inline std::vector<raisim::Vec<3>> &
getJointAxis_P
()¶  Returns
a reference to joint axis relative to its parent, expressed in the parent frame.

inline const raisim::Vec<3> &
getJointAxis
(size_t idx) const¶  Returns
a reference to joint axis expressed in the world frame.

inline std::vector<double> &
getMass
()¶ You MUST call updateMassInfo() after you change the mass
 Returns
a reference to mass of each body.

inline std::vector<raisim::Mat<3, 3>> &
getInertia
()¶  Returns
a reference to inertia of each body.

inline std::vector<raisim::Vec<3>> &
getBodyCOM_B
()¶  Returns
a reference to the position of the center of the mass of each body in the body frame.

inline std::vector<raisim::Vec<3>> &
getBodyCOM_W
()¶  Returns
a reference to the position of the center of the mass of each body in the world frame.

inline raisim::CollisionSet &
getCollisionBodies
()¶  Returns
a reference to the collision bodies. Position and orientation can be set dynamically

inline raisim::CollisionDefinition &
getCollisionBody
(const std::string &name)¶  Parameters
name – collision body name which is “LINK_NAME” + “/” + “COLLISION_NUMBER”. For example, the first collision body of the link “base” is named as “base/0”
 Returns
a reference to the collision bodies. Position and orientation can be set dynamically

void
updateMassInfo
()¶ This method updates the precomputed composite mass. Call this method after you change link mass. This also updates the center of mass without integration

inline virtual double
getMass
(size_t bodyIdx) const final¶  Parameters
bodyIdx – [in] the body index. it can be retrieved by getBodyIdx()
 Returns
mass of the body

inline void
setMass
(size_t bodyIdx, double value)¶ set body mass. It is indexed for each body, not for individual link. Check this link (https://raisim.com/sections/ArticulatedSystem.html#introduction) to understand the difference between a link and a body

inline double
getTotalMass
() const¶  Returns
the total mass of the system.

virtual void
setExternalForce
(size_t bodyIdx, const Vec<3> &force) final¶ set external forces or torques expressed in the world frame acting on the COM of the body. The external force is applied for a single time step only. You have to apply the force for every time step if you want persistent force
 Parameters
bodyIdx – [in] the body index. it can be retrieved by getBodyIdx()
force – [in] force applied to the body (at the center of mass)

void
setExternalForce
(size_t bodyIdx, Frame frameOfForce, const Vec<3> &force, Frame frameOfPos, const Vec<3> &pos)¶ set external force acting on the point specified The external force is applied for a single time step only. You have to apply the force for every time step if you want persistent force
 Parameters
bodyIdx – [in] the body index. it can be retrieved by getBodyIdx()
frameOfForce – [in] the frame in which the force is expressed. Options: Frame::WORLD_FRAME, Frame::PARENT_FRAME or Frame::BODY_FRAME
force – [in] the applied force
frameOfPos – [in] the frame in which the position vector is expressed. Options: Frame::WORLD_FRAME, Frame::PARENT_FRAME or Frame::BODY_FRAME
pos – [in] position at which the force is applied

inline virtual void
setExternalForce
(size_t bodyIdx, const Vec<3> &pos, const Vec<3> &force) final¶ set external force (expressed in the world frame) acting on the point (expressed in the body frame) specified The external force is applied for a single time step only. You have to apply the force for every time step if you want persistent force
 Parameters
bodyIdx – [in] the body index. it can be retrieved by getBodyIdx()
force – [in] the applied force
pos – [in] position at which the force is applied

inline void
setExternalForce
(const std::string &frame_name, const Vec<3> &force)¶ set external force (expressed in the world frame) acting on the point specified by the frame The external force is applied for a single time step only. You have to apply the force for every time step if you want persistent force
 Parameters
frame_name – [in] the name of the frame where you want to applied the force. The force is applied to the origin of the frame, on the body where the frame is attached to.
force – [in] the applied force in the world frame

virtual void
setExternalTorque
(size_t bodyIdx, const Vec<3> &torque_in_world_frame) final¶ set external torque. The external torque is applied for a single time step only. You have to apply the force for every time step if you want persistent torque
 Parameters
bodyIdx – [in] the body index. it can be retrieved by getBodyIdx()
torque_in_world_frame – [in] the applied torque expressed in the world frame

inline void
setExternalTorqueInBodyFrame
(size_t bodyIdx, const Vec<3> &torque_in_body_frame)¶ set external torque. The external torque is applied for a single time step only. You have to apply the force for every time step if you want persistent torque
 Parameters
bodyIdx – [in] the body index. it can be retrieved by getBodyIdx()
torque_in_body_frame – [in] the applied torque expressed in the body frame

virtual void
getContactPointVel
(size_t contactId, Vec<3> &vel) const final¶ returns the contact point velocity. The contactId is the order in the vector from Object::getContacts()
 Parameters
contactId – [in] index of the contact vector which can be obtained by getContacts()
vel – [out] the contact point velocity

inline void
setControlMode
(ControlMode::Type mode)¶  Parameters
mode – [in] control mode. Can be either ControlMode::FORCE_AND_TORQUE or ControlMode::PD_PLUS_FEEDFORWARD_TORQUE

inline ControlMode::Type
getControlMode
() const¶  Returns
control mode. Can be either ControlMode::FORCE_AND_TORQUE or ControlMode::PD_PLUS_FEEDFORWARD_TORQUE

inline void
setPdTarget
(const Eigen::VectorXd &posTarget, const Eigen::VectorXd &velTarget)¶ set PD targets.
 Parameters
posTarget – [in] position target
velTarget – [in] velocity target

inline void
getPdTarget
(Eigen::VectorXd &posTarget, Eigen::VectorXd &velTarget)¶ get PD targets.
 Parameters
posTarget – [out] position target
velTarget – [out] velocity target

inline void
setPdTarget
(const raisim::VecDyn &posTarget, const raisim::VecDyn &velTarget)¶ set PD targets.
 Parameters
posTarget – [in] position target (dimension == getGeneralizedCoordinateDim())
velTarget – [in] velocity target (dimension == getDOF())

template<class
T
>
inline voidsetPTarget
(const T &posTarget)¶ set P targets.
 Parameters
posTarget – [in] position target (dimension == getGeneralizedCoordinateDim())

template<class
T
>
inline voidsetDTarget
(const T &velTarget)¶ set D targets.
 Parameters
velTarget – [in] velocity target (dimension == getDOF())

inline void
setPdGains
(const Eigen::VectorXd &pgain, const Eigen::VectorXd &dgain)¶ set PD gains.

inline void
getPdGains
(Eigen::VectorXd &pgain, Eigen::VectorXd &dgain)¶ get PD gains.

inline void
setPdGains
(const raisim::VecDyn &pgain, const raisim::VecDyn &dgain)¶ set PD gains.

template<class
T
>
inline voidsetPGains
(const T &pgain)¶ set P gain.
 Parameters
pgain – [in] position gain (dimension == getDOF())

template<class
T
>
inline voidsetDGains
(const T &dgain)¶ set D gains.
 Parameters
dgain – [in] velocity gain (dimension == getDOF())

inline void
setJointDamping
(const Eigen::VectorXd &dampingCoefficient)¶ passive elements at the joints. They can be specified in the URDF file as well. Check Object/ArticulatedSystem/URDF convention in the manual
 Parameters
dampingCoefficient – [in] the damping coefficient vector, acting at each degrees of freedom

inline void
setJointDamping
(const raisim::VecDyn &dampingCoefficient)¶ passive elements at the joints. They can be specified in the URDF file as well. Check Object/ArticulatedSystem/URDF convention in the manual
 Parameters
dampingCoefficient – [in] the damping coefficient vector, acting at each degrees of freedom

void
computeSparseInverse
(const MatDyn &M, MatDyn &Minv) noexcept¶ This computes the inverse mass matrix given the mass matrix. The return type is dense. It exploits the sparsity of the mass matrix to efficiently perform the computation. The outcome also contains effects of the joint damping and strings
 Parameters
M – [in] mass matrix
Minv – [out] inverse mass matrix

inline void
massMatrixVecMul
(const VecDyn &vec1, VecDyn &vec) const¶ this method exploits the sparsity of the mass matrix. If the mass matrix is nearly dense, it will be slower than your ordinary matrix multiplication which is probably vectorized vec = M * vec1
 Parameters
vec – [in] input vector
vec1 – [out] output vector

void
ignoreCollisionBetween
(size_t bodyIdx1, size_t bodyIdx2)¶ The bodies specified here will not collide
 Parameters
bodyIdx1 – [in] first body index
bodyIdx2 – [in] second body index

inline ArticulatedSystemOption
getOptions
() const¶ Currently only supports “DO_NOT_COLLIDE_WITH_PARENT”
 Returns
articulated system option

inline const std::vector<std::string> &
getBodyNames
() const¶  Returns
a vector of body names (following the joint order)

inline std::vector<VisObject> &
getVisOb
()¶  Returns
a vector of visualized bodies

inline std::vector<VisObject> &
getVisColOb
()¶  Returns
a vector of visualized collision bodies

inline void
getVisObPose
(size_t visObjIdx, Mat<3, 3> &rot, Vec<3> &pos) const¶  Parameters
visObjIdx – [in] visual object index. Following the order specified by the vector getVisOb()
rot – [out] orientation
pos – [out] position

inline void
getVisColObPose
(size_t visColObjIdx, Mat<3, 3> &rot, Vec<3> &pos) const¶  Parameters
visColObjIdx – [in] visual collision object index. Following the order specified by the vector getVisColOb()
rot – [out] orientation
pos – [out] position

inline const std::string &
getResourceDir
() const¶  Returns
the resource directory (for mesh files, textures, etc)

inline const std::string &
getRobotDescriptionfFileName
() const¶  Returns
the resource directory (for mesh files, textures, etc)

inline const std::string &
getRobotDescriptionfTopDirName
() const¶  Returns
the name of the URDF file (returns empty string if the robot was not specified by a URDF file)

inline const std::string &
getRobotDescriptionFullPath
() const¶  Returns
the full path to the URDF file (returns empty string if the robot was not specified by a URDF file)

inline const std::string &
getRobotDescription
() const¶  Returns
if the object was instantiated with raw URDF string, it returns the string

inline void
exportRobotDescriptionToURDF
(const std::string &filePath) const¶ if the object was instantiated with raw URDF string, it exports the robot description to an URDF file
 Parameters
filePath – [in] Path where the file is generated

inline void
setBasePos_e
(const Eigen::Vector3d &pos)¶ set the base position using an eigen vector
 Parameters
pos – [in] position of the base

inline void
setBaseOrientation_e
(const Eigen::Matrix3d &rot)¶ set the base orientation using an eigen vector
 Parameters
rot – [in] orientation of the base

void
setBasePos
(const Vec<3> &pos)¶ set the base position using an eigen vector
 Parameters
pos – [in] position of the base

void
setBaseOrientation
(const Mat<3, 3> &rot)¶ set the base orientation using a raisim rotation matrix (i.e., Mat<3,3>)
 Parameters
rot – [in] orientation of the base

void
setBaseOrientation
(const Vec<4> &quat)¶ set the base orientation using a raisim quaternion (i.e., Vec<4>)
 Parameters
quat – [in] orientation of the base

void
setBaseVelocity
(const Vec<3> &vel)¶ set the base position using an eigen vector
 Parameters
vel – [in] the linear velocity of the base

void
setBaseAngularVelocity
(const Vec<3> &vel)¶ set the base position using an eigen vector
 Parameters
vel – [in] the angular velocity of the base

inline void
setActuationLimits
(const Eigen::VectorXd &upper, const Eigen::VectorXd &lower)¶ set limits in actuation force. It can be also specified in the URDF file
 Parameters
upper – [in] upper joint force/torque limit
lower – [in] lower joint force/torque limit

inline const VecDyn &
getActuationUpperLimits
() const¶  Returns
the upper joint torque/force limit

inline const VecDyn &
getActuationLowerLimits
() const¶  Returns
the lower joint torque/force limit

void
setCollisionObjectShapeParameters
(size_t id, const Vec<4> ¶ms)¶ change collision geom parameters.
 Parameters
id – [in] collision object id
params – [in] collision object parameters (depending on the object). For a sphere, {raidus}. For a cylinder and a capsule, {radius, length} For a box, {xdim, ydim, zdim}

void
setCollisionObjectPositionOffset
(size_t id, const Vec<3> &posOffset)¶ change collision geom offset from the joint position.
 Parameters
id – [in] collision object id
posOffset – [in] the position vector expressed in the joint frame

void
setCollisionObjectOrientationOffset
(size_t id, const Mat<3, 3> &oriOffset)¶ change collision geom orientation offset from the joint frame.
 Parameters
id – [in] collision object id
oriOffset – [in] the orientation relative to the joint frame

inline void
setRotorInertia
(const VecDyn &rotorInertia)¶ rotor inertia is a term added to the diagonal of the mass matrix. This approximates the rotor inertia. Note that this is not exactly equivalent in dynamics (due to gyroscopic effect). but it is a commonly used approximation. It can also be expressed in the URDF file
 Parameters
rotorInertia – [in] the rotor inertia

inline const VecDyn &
getRotorInertia
() const¶ rotor inertia is a term added to the diagonal of the mass matrix. This approximates the rotor inertia. Note that this is not exactly equivalent in dynamics (due to gyroscopic effect). but it is a commonly used approximation. It can also be expressed in the URDF file
 Returns
the rotor inertia

inline Joint::Type
getJointType
(size_t jointIndex)¶ This joint indices are in the same order as the elements of the generalized velocity However, some joints have multiple degrees of freedom and they are not equal
 Parameters
jointIndex – [in] the joint index
 Returns
the joint type

inline size_t
getNumberOfJoints
() const¶  Returns
the number of joints (same as the number of bodies)

inline JointRef
getJoint
(const std::string &name)¶ returns reference object of the joint
 Parameters
name – [in] joint name
 Returns
a JointRef to the joint. Check the example JointRefAndLinkRef

inline LinkRef
getLink
(const std::string &name)¶ returns reference object of the joint
 Parameters
name – [in] the link name
 Returns
a LinkRef to the link. Check the example JointRefAndLinkRef

inline const std::vector<size_t> &
getMappingFromBodyIndexToGeneralizedVelocityIndex
() const¶  Returns
a mapping that converts body index to gv index

inline const std::vector<size_t> &
getMappingFromBodyIndexToGeneralizedCoordinateIndex
() const¶  Returns
a mapping that converts body index to gv index

inline virtual ObjectType
getObjectType
() const final¶  Returns
the object type (ARTICULATED_SYSTEM)

virtual BodyType
getBodyType
(size_t bodyIdx) const final¶  Returns
the body type (STATIC, KINEMATIC, or DYNAMIC) of the specified body. It is always DYNAMIC except for the fixed base

inline virtual BodyType
getBodyType
() const final¶  Returns
the body type (STATIC, KINEMATIC, or DYNAMIC). It is always dynamic

inline void
setIntegrationScheme
(IntegrationScheme scheme)¶  Parameters
scheme – [in] the integration scheme. Can be either TRAPEZOID, SEMI_IMPLICIT, EULER, or RUNGE_KUTTA_4. We recommend TRAPEZOID for systems with many collisions. RUNGE_KUTTA_4 is useful for systems with few contacts and when the integration accuracy is important

inline std::vector<contact::Single3DContactProblem const*>
getJointLimitViolations
(const contact::ContactProblems &problemListFromWorld)¶ usage example: For 1d joints (e.g., revolute or prismatic), you can get the impulse due to the joint limit as
robot.getJointLimitViolations()[0]>imp_i[0]
For a ball joint, all three components of imp_i represent the torque in the 3d space. The following joint returns the joint/body Idrobot.getJointLimitViolations()[0]>jointId
. Returns
get contact problems associated with violated joint limits

inline void
setJointLimits
(const std::vector<raisim::Vec<2>> &jointLimits)¶ set new joint limits For revolute and prisimatic joints, the joint limit is {lower, upper} For spherical joint, the joint limit is {angle, NOT_USED}
 Parameters
jointLimits – [in] joint limits

inline const std::vector<raisim::Vec<2>> &
getJointLimits
() const¶ get the joint limits For revolute and prisimatic joints, the joint limit is {lower, upper} For spherical joint, the joint limit is {angle, NOT_USED}
 Returns
jointLimits joint limits

inline const VecDyn &
getJointVelocityLimits
() const¶ get the joint velocity limits
 Returns
jointLimits joint velocity limits

inline void
setJointVelocityLimits
(const VecDyn &velLimits)¶ set the joint velocity limits
 Parameters
velLimits – [in] joint velocity limits

inline virtual void
clearExternalForcesAndTorques
() final¶ Clears all external forces and torques

inline void
addSpring
(const SpringElement &spring)¶  Parameters
spring – [in] Additional spring elements for joints

inline std::vector<SpringElement> &
getSprings
()¶  Returns
springs Existing spring elements on joints

inline const std::vector<size_t> &
getParentVector
() const¶  Returns
parent parent[i] is a parent body id of the i^th body

inline std::unordered_map<std::string, std::shared_ptr<Sensor>> &
getSensors
()¶  Returns
sensors on the robot

inline void
setComputeInverseDynamics
(bool flag)¶ If it is true, it also computes inverse dynamics and you can get the following properties: the force and torque (including the constrained directions) at the joint and acceleration of a body (necessary for IMU computation)
 Parameters
flag –

inline bool
getComputeInverseDynamics
() const¶  Returns
return if the inverse dynamics is computed

inline const raisim::Vec<3> &
getForceAtJointInWorldFrame
(size_t jointId) const¶ YOU MUST CALL raisim::ArticulatedSystem::setComputeInverseDynamics(true) before calling this method. This method returns the force at the specified joint
 Parameters
jointId – [in] the joint id
 Returns
force at the joint

inline const raisim::Vec<3> &
getTorqueAtJointInWorldFrame
(size_t jointId) const¶ YOU MUST CALL raisim::ArticulatedSystem::setComputeInverseDynamics(true) before calling this method. This method returns the torque at the specified joint
 Parameters
jointId – [in] the joint id
 Returns
torque at the joint

inline int
getAllowedNumberOfInternalContactsBetweenTwoBodies
() const¶ Default is 1. This number limits the number of possible contacts between two bodies.
 Returns
the number of possible contacts between two bodies

inline void
setAllowedNumberOfInternalContactsBetweenTwoBodies
(int count)¶ Default is 1. This sets the number of possible contacts between two bodies
 Parameters
count –

void
articulatedBodyAlgorithm
(const Vec<3> &gravity, double dt)¶ to be removed. just for testing purposes
Public Static Functions

static inline void
convertSparseJacobianToDense
(const SparseJacobian &sparseJaco, Eigen::MatrixXd &denseJaco)¶  Parameters
sparseJaco – [in] sparse Jacobian (either positional or rotational)
denseJaco – [out] the corresponding dense Jacobian

class
JointRef
¶

class
LinkRef
¶

struct
SpringElement
¶

inline const raisim::VecDyn &